AMERICAN AVIATION HISTORICAL SOCIETY

   1956 - 2016, Celebrating  over 60 Years of Service
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Excerpts from
AAHS Journal, Vol. 60, No. 2 - Summer 2015
Table of Contents
 


Annual Meeting Notice

Mark your calendars. The AAHS Annual Meeting will be held February 13, 2016.

Current planning will have the meeting held at the newly restored, historic Glendale Grand Central Air Terminal.

So mark your calendards for your opportunity to visit a unique piece of American Aviation history.

Details to follow.

 



Annual Meeting Notice


The WACO E Airistocrat

In October 1939, the first of a new line of cabin biplanes rolled out of Waco Aircraft Co.’s factory at Troy, Ohio. Waco had been one of the most successful aircraft manufacturers since 1925 and had been building a long string of highly efficient cabin biplanes since 1931. The 1940 model’s trim lines suggested that it was a radical departure from its“ancestors,” the Waco “Custom” cabin series that first went into production in 1935.

This was only partially true. Stripped of its shape-giving metal panels, wooden formers and stringers, the steel tubing skeleton, obviously, was an evolution of the sturdy 1938,“Custom” (C-8) model. While the wings had the same design shapes and operating features of the C-8 version, plywood skinning now smoothed their surfaces. The slimmer and longer fuselage of the new Waco E series added to the sleek and speedy look. Indeed, the redesigned aircraft was about 15 mph faster, in both maximum and cruising speeds, than the C-8 powered by the same type of engine, despite a 200 pound increase of empty and gross weights. When powered by the 400+ hp class Pratt & Whitney or Wright engines, the E’s maximum level flight speed was slightly over 200 mph and its cruising speed only slightly less. That’s mighty impressive for a five-place, fixedgear biplane.

The E’s most striking feature was the smoothly cowled engine. Unlike most radial-engined aircraft of the time, there was no large gap at the rear of the cowling. Waco had departed from the common practice of mounting the engine cowling on the engine, itself. Instead, the cowling had its own supporting structure that was attached to the main fuselage assembly. The metal engine accessory cowling panels faired smoothly into the contours of the fuselage structure. Top cowling louvers and a controllable door on the underside of the forward part of the fuselage provided the discharge ports for the air flowing through the engine and accessory sections. The cooling door could be opened to about a 30° angle for ground operation or lesser amounts for takeoff and climb-out. At cruise, the cooling . . .



Waco SRE, N20967, c/n 5089


William Bushnell Stout (1880-1956)

Along the banks of the Mississippi River in Adams County lies the city of Quincy, Ill., (known as the Gem City) and there on March 16, 1880, was born to Reverend Frank James Stout and his wife Mary C. (Bushnell) Stout a son, William Bushnell Stout, who would rise subsequently to prominence in the technical automotive engineering and aviation world. He was born with a twin sister who, although seemingly healthy and robust, died six weeks later. He also had two additional siblings, an older sister Mary B. born in 1877 and a younger brother Francis B. born in 1885. The elder Stout had a pastoral career with the Methodist Episcopal Church and the family often moved with assignments taking him to various cities in Illinois including Danville (1881), Bloomington (1884), Quincy (1886), and subsequently to Minnesota including St. Paul (1887), Minneapolis (1889), Mankato (1895) and Winona (1899). Stout’s mother was the granddaughter of David Bushnell (1740-1824) the inventor of the ‘American Turtle’ (an early experimental combat submarine during the War of Independence).

From an early age, young William found his calling in the family workshop where he became in time an expert in devising toys earning a nickname of “Jack Knife,” which he later used when writing newspaper columns. He was not a very good student in school while living in Quincy, but later, when residing in the Twin City area while his father was preaching in another city, Stout graduated from Mechanics Arts High School in St. Paul in 1898 where he excelled. Stout then enrolled in St. Paul’s Methodist University but dropped out of that school to accept a teaching position in a 30 student one room schoolhouse in Winona, Minn., where his father now had a parish. Later he enrolled in Hamline University (1899-1900) but transferred to the University of Minnesota (1901-1902) that offered him a more comprehensive engineering curriculum. To finance his schooling Stout wrote articles for the St. Paul Dispatch and other publications on toy making, informing young boys as he noted “how to make strange and wonderful contraptions out of a rubber band, a hairpin and two toothpicks.” The Dispatch even sent him to Europe to study new ideas resulting in an extensive tour of England, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland. He returned to the United States on October 18, 1903, aboard the freighter Lancastrian. The experiences also helped him to become increasingly interested in aeronautical experiments, as well as engineering designs for motorcycles and motor trucks.

On June 16, 1906, at the age of 26 he married a Canadian beauty, Alma E. Raymond, whom he met while she was living in the Twin City area, and two years later in 1908 they honeymooned in Europe riding Reading-Standard motor bicycles. They had left in April 1908 and returned aboard the SS Teutonic on October 21, 1908. Their exploits appeared in the May 1, 1909, issue of the Saturday Evening Post. The couple settled in St. Paul where Stout built a house and most of the furniture. He and Alma had daughter, Wilma Frances, born on February 22, 1912. Stout’s life was a compendium fascination with automobiles and aviation. He carefully studied the accomplishments of the Wright brothers, Glenn Curtiss, Albert Santos-Dumont and Octave Chanute. He was a founder of the Aero Club of Illinois. Stout stated that his real fascination with aviation began when seeing the June Bug brought to St. Paul by Glenn Curtiss in 1910.

A year after his marriage Stout became the chief engineer for the Schurmeir Motor Truck Company. He continued to write a boy’s column for the St. Paul Dispatch during this period. In 1912 he assumed the editorship of the automobile and aviation section of the Chicago Tribune. Concomitantly . . . .

 

Complete Bibliography for this article (PDF document)



Stout 3-AT


The Stages of U.S. Airline Deregulation

Regulation
Although U.S. airline deregulation was initially envisionedas leading to an increased number of carriers whose divergentservice concepts, market segments, fleets, and route structures would have produced new competition, stimulated traffic, andlowered fares, it ultimately came full cycle and only resultedin virtual monopoly. Three distinct stages occurred during itsevolution.

The regulation itself traces its origin to 1938 when Congressadopted the Civil Aeronautics Act. Its resultant five-memberCivil Aeronautics Board (CAB), formed two years later in1940, regulated fares, authorized routes, awarded subsidies,and approved interline agreements, among other functions.“Regulation, by definition, substitutes the judgment of theregulator for that of the marketplace,” according to Elizabeth E.Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book, Deregulating the Airlines.(1)

So regulated had the environment been, in fact, thatan airline often had to resort to the purchase of another carrierjust to obtain its route authority. Delta Air Lines, for example,long interested in providing nonstop service between NewYork and Florida, continually petitioned the CAB for the rights.But the regulatory agency felt that Northeast, a small localservice carrier often plagued by low traffic, financial loss, andbad weather because of its route system, needed the lucrativeFlorida route’s revenue potential to boost it back to health andgranted it the authority instead.

Undaunted, Delta ultimately resorted to acquiring theregional carrier along with its 727 “Yellowbird” fleet andsubsequently received approval for the merger on April 24,1972. But these extremes would shortly no longer be needed.A glimpse of the future could already be had in Californiaand Texas. Devoid of jurisdiction over local air transportation,the CAB could neither exercise fare nor route authority overintrastate airlines and these carriers, usually offering highfrequency,single-class, no-frills service at half the fares theregulated “trunk” airlines were forced to charge, consistentlyrecorded both profit and traffic growth.

Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines, forexample, operating in the Los Angeles-San Francisco market,saw yearly traffic figures increase from 1.5 million passengersin 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Texas-based Southwest Airlinessimilarly provided low-fare service between Dallas andHouston and other Texas points. These airlines demonstratedthat true deregulation could yield fares accessible to averageincomepassengers, provide greater airline and service conceptchoice, and stimulate traffic.

Passengers and government alike increasingly decriedregulation during the mid-1970s, citing the examples set byAir California, PSA, Southwest, and other intrastate airlinesas demonstrable proof that deregulation could produce mutualairline- and passenger-benefit. At least that was the theory.Ultimately conceding to reason and democratic rule,President Jimmy Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Acton October 28, 1978, in the process eliminating the need forCAB approval of route entrance and exit and reducing most . . .



Air California Boeing 737-293, N467GB, c/n 1971


Elvy Kalep

An aviatrix who used her creativity to advance aviation

The 1920s, a decade that favored independent and daring women, provided the impetus for a number of females to take up flying and capture the public’s attention. None garnered more than Earhart, but her comrades-in-arms shared the limelight in their own way. Whether an escape from mundane earthly responsibilities or a true passion for the sport, the ladies set records, flew as test pilots, and promoted aviation by proving that it was a safe means of transportation. Estonian Elvy Kalep belonged to this dedicated and adventurous group. Although her flying career lasted less than 10 years, Elvy’s enthusiasm for aviation led her down a more creative path.

Born June 26, 1899, Elvy lost both parents at an early age. Her aunt and uncle raised the quiet, inquisitive girl in Reval, Estonia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland. By the age of eight, Elvy spent much of her time painting and drawing caricatures. It was clear to her aunt and uncle that the young girl’s natural artistic talent would play an important part in her future. They never dreamed that Elvy would include flying as one of her talents.

The Kalep family’s comfortable seaside life ended in 1916 as Germany began a massive invasion into Estonia. To escape Germany’s certain occupation, thousands of Estonians fled their homeland including Elvy, now 17 years old, and her aunt. They eventually found shelter with a relative in St. Petersburg until some months later, the Bolsheviks revolted in an attempt to overthrow the Tzar. Streets filled with rioters made life perilous for the city’s residents. Food was in short supply; the bread lines long; and soldiers randomly pulled citizens from the lines and shot them in the street. As a result, some 20,000 left St. Petersburg. Most took the Trans-Siberian Railway east.

Elvy and her aunt, near starvation, obtained ticket number 6,000 destined for Vladivostok. Upon their arrival in the eastern Russian city, they learned that the uncle who promised them lodging was now in China. Elvy and her aunt continued the journey, eventually settling in Shenyang. It is assumed that it was here that Elvy met and married a Russian General, Count Graf Slastšov, and gave birth to a son who passed away as an infant. The count met his fate in battle. With no means of support, Elvy, fluent in Russian, German, English and Chinese, secured a job as a translator for the British in Shenyang. By 1925, Elvy began the long trek back to Estonia, via Sumatra, Italy and France.

In her own words, “I managed to escape to China where I visited Tiensin, Peiping and Mukden, owing to an uncle of mine who was in charge of the Chinese railroad. Finally, by way of Sumatra, I eventually reached Italy. Having faced danger so many times under the Communists I took a very fatalistic outlook on life for many years after my escape.”

The circumstances of the past nine years might have resigned most to accept the safe, humdrum life that Estonia offered but not for the spirited Elvy. She wanted excitement, challenges, and creative expression in her life. To fulfill her quest, Elvy boarded the train for Paris in 1926. She studied art in the City of Lights under Russian painter Alexander Jaovleff for the next several years. It is assumed that Elvy met Jakovleff in the Far East where he also fled during Russia’s Bolshevik Revolution. Before returning to Paris in 1919, Jakovleff studied art in Mongolia, China and Japan. He shared his enthusiasm for orientalist paintings with Elvy that influenced her later art projects.

Elvy, now a beautiful and charming young woman, walked the Paris streets with Hemmingway, Stein and other prominent artists, philosophers, and writers, acquiring the graceful mannerisms of a person accustomed to moving in upper echelon social circles. She married Austrian Baron Rudolf Höpflinger-Bergendorf; took up auto-racing; and spent her winters in St Moritz skiing and learned to bobsled from world champion Rossi di Montelera. She also met well-respected airplane designer Anthony Fokker on the slopes. This chance meeting would change Elvy’s life. Aware of the Estonian’s zest for bobsledding and her advanced skills racing autos, Fokker suggested that she might enjoy the challenge of flying. Elvy’s response to Fokker’s . . .



Roger Q. Williams and Elvy Kalep


The Operational History of Lockheed C-141, 65-9408

An airplane, just about any airplane, is an inanimate object generally constructed of sheet aluminum, rivets, hydraulic fluid and engine oil. No heart and no soul, so they say. On any production run any one aircraft looks just like the one that preceded it off the assembly line, and the one that came after it, the only difference being the serial number. But occasionally a single aircraft, a single serial number, will come to have a significant personal meaning in our lives. For instance, the serial number of the aircraft you flew when you first soloed. The serial number of the aircraft on which you first painted your name that signified you as the primary crew chief. The serial number of the aircraft in which you pushed the envelope one day and it was only by the grace of God and a forgiving airplane that you survived. This then is the human interest story of one such aircraft, Lockheed C-141 65-9408.


Acceptance

C-141A 65-9408 was accepted by the Air Force in early April 1967 and was assigned to the 437th Military Airlift Wing (MAW) at Charleston AFB, South Carolina. At a time when the six operational airlift wings and the one training wing of the Military Airlift Command were coming up to strength with Lockheed’s new Starlifter, it was not uncommon for new aircraft to be reassigned between Wings for short periods of time. 65-9408, however, was an exception. Almost all of its operational career from 1967 to 1994 was spent with the 437th MAW at Charleston.(1)


Prelude

On July 26, 1968, the war in Viet Nam was at its peak, Operation Rolling Thunder had been in force for two-and-a-half years, and I was an F-4 Phantom crew chief with the 555th TFS at Udorn RTAFB, Thailand. On that particular day, I was working the grave yard shift from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., and it started out no different than any other shift. At about 8:00 p.m., I was in the process of completing a preflight inspection for an early morning sortie when the flight chief stopped by the revetment.

The flight chief informed me that one of our aircraft required an engine run on the trim pad at the north end of the base and asked if I would assist two other crew chiefs to tow the aircraft to the pad and get it set up. As we turned out of the squadron parking area towing the aircraft, I was seated in the cockpit ready to apply the brakes in case of any emergency. As we turned onto the taxiway I noticed a C-141 parked on a concrete pad between the runway and taxiway also at the north end of the field, approximately 50 yards from the trim pad. At this point in time the C-141 was relatively new to the inventory and this was the first one I had actually seen. The spot lights from the AGE equipment lit up the darkness and reflected off the aircraft fuselage, and I remember wondering, why was it parked way out there in the middle of nowhere? As we got closer, I could make out the shapes of the security guards and flight crew around the aircraft. Had I realized at the time what my future held in store I would probably have paid more attention to the serial number, 59408, on the vertical stabilizer and to the Wing identification number, 437 MAW, on the nose of the aircraft; but, at that moment, I had no way of knowing why they would be significant and how our paths would later cross. I was more interested in getting the F-4 to the trim pad and getting back to my preflight inspection.

What I also did not know at the time was that both the C-141 and its flight crew were taking part in Operation Sentinel Echo. They were staging out of Udorn AB awaiting the release of three American POW’s whom they would then medevac either to Clark AB in the Philippines or to Kadena AB on Okinawa. The three Air Force pilots scheduled for release by North Viet Nam were Maj. Fred N. Thompson, Maj. James F. Low, a Korean War Ace and Capt. Joe V. Carpenter.

We positioned the Phantom on the trim pad, left the crew chief to assist the engine specialists’ test run the engine, and headed back to the squadron area. As we left the trim pad I . . .



Lockheed C-141B 65-9408


Early Naval Aviators' Ideas Still Relevant After a Century

INTRODUCTION

A great celebration took place in 2011 to commemorate the centennial of Naval Aviation. In 2012 another great celebration took place to commemorate the centennial of Marine Corps aviation. Two aviators are associated with these milestones– Cmdr. Theodore Gordon Ellyson, the first Naval Aviator and Lt. Col. Alfred A. Cunningham, the first Marine Corps Aviator. Their analysis of issues and advocacy of solutions are remarkably as relevant today for national defense as they were over 100 years ago.

Here are their histories and accomplishments that pertain to modern issues:


THEODORE GORDON ELLYSON

Naval victories and pictures of new ships inspired 15-yearold Theodore Gordon Ellyson. He wanted to go to the Naval Academy and have a career in the Navy.(1)

He was born February 27, 1885, in Richmond, Virginia. He had red hair and was naturally gregarious.(2) Ellyson formed strong opinions quickly and fought for them.(3)

Ellyson attended a preparatory school to be trained for entrance into the Naval Academy.(4) He stayed at a boarding house, and so liked the potatoes there, that his roommate called him “spuds,” a nickname he used for life.(5)

He entered the Naval Academy in 1901.6 His roommate for four years was Kenneth Whiting (Naval Aviator No 16; Whiting Field at Milton, Fla., was named after him(7)). Ellyson graduated from the Naval Academy in 1905.(8)

During the course of his life, Ellyson served on battleships, armored cruisers, submarines, the fitting out of the aircraft carrier USS Lexington and in the Bureau of Aeronautics.(9)

One day Whiting asked Ellyson, “Have you thought anything about this flying game?” Ellyson sent a request to the Secretary of the Navy to “be assigned duty in connection with aeroplanes.”(10)

The Secretary of the Navy appointed a board of officers, with Capt. Washington Irving Chambers as senior member to draw up “a comprehensive plan for the organization of a Naval Aeronautic Service.”(11) (Captain Chambers graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1876 and served aboard a wide variety of surface ships. He was made the first Director of Naval Aviation and established aviation in the budget leading to the purchase of the Navy’s first aircraft.(12)) Captain Chambers got a lette from Glenn Curtiss, a pioneer aviator and airplane manufacturer,(13) offering to train an officer.(14)

Ellyson got orders in 1910 to report to Los Angeles. He met Glenn Curtiss who showed him North Island.(15)

Ellyson learned to fly a Curtiss pusher aircraft.(16) There was no enclosed fuselage and the pilot sat at the front with no seatbelt.(17)

Curtiss decided to close North Island and bought a factory in Hammondsport, N.Y., beside Lake Keuka. Ellyson was ordered to Hammondsport.(18)

In March 1911, the Navy’s Bureau of Navigation received an appropriation of $25,000 for experiments in aeronautics. On May 8, 1911, two requisitions were prepared for Curtiss biplanes. The first was for a Triad.(19) The aircraft was nicknamed Triad because, with a pontoon float and retractable landing gear, it could operate from water, land and air.(20) It had a metal-tipped propeller, provisions for carrying a passenger and dual controls operated by either the pilot or passenger. The plane became the Navy’s first airplane, the “A-1”.(21) The A-1 was the airplane that Ellyson learned to fly. The maximum speed was 60 mph. It had one 75-hp Curtiss V-8 engine.(22) Ellyson made two evening flights alone in the A-1.(23) He was . . .



Lt. Alfred A. Cunningham in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane


The Elais M-1 Mailplane

Description of the Third Machine Built in Response to the Post Office Department’s Proposal for Bids [From Aviation, May 4, 1925]

In 1925, the U.S. Post Office solicited proposals for a special purpose mailplane to replace the de Havilland DH-4Ms that were currently in use. Boeing submitted the Model 40 and Douglas, the eventual winner, the M-2. Elias submitted the M-1, but only the single example was built.

The latest production of the Aircraft Department of G. Elias and Bro. is the M-1 Mailplane to the designs of M. Stupar, the chief engineer. This machine was designed with the requirements of mail service in mind and every effort was made to incorporate all the desirable features. Among these may be mentioned the divided axle, the accessible mail compartment and ease of engine maintenance. The test pilot reported that the machine was very controllable and that it could be flown hands off at all speeds from 100 to 110 mph.

It is a single bay, wire braced biplane. There is no center section, the two upper panels being supported at the center by two inverted vee pairs of struts. There are two struts leading from the upper longerons to the lower wings above the landing gears on each side of the fuselage. Ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower wings. Control horns are used on the lower pair only, the upper one being controlled by a strut. The ailerons are not balanced. The wings are wood construction with box spars. The ribs have a plywood web with solid cap strips and vertical members. The fittings are low carbon steel plates with the bolts on the neutral axis of the spar. The internal drag bracing is double and of tie rod construction.

Fuselage

The fuselage is built up of welded steel tubing and struts with tie-rod bracing. The mail compartment is at the center of gravity and sheathed with 1/16 in. duralumin plates. This construction renders the compartment fireproof and able to stand up under hard service. The cover is hinged on the right side and fastened with two clasps and a cylinder lock similar to those on trunks. A shelf and rings are provided to take care of small or special loads. The fuselage is covered with cloth from the engine cowling aft. Special care was given the pilot’s cockpit. The instrument board is divided and made of aluminum with the lettering etched in. The seat is adjustable on the ground. . .



Elias M-1 Mailplane


Col. Charles W. Stark: From Horse Artillery to Turboprops

Beginning his military career in the National Guard horse artillery, Charles W. Stark served in the Army, Air Corps, the Army Air Force and the United States Air Force. He saw military aviation progress from fabriccovered airplanes to Century Series fighters, multi-engine transports and a multitude of aircraft types. He was a unit commander of fighter squadrons, air divisions and wings and saw combat in WWII and the Korean War. In other assignments, he was central to fighter development and evaluation. His active duty career began with graduation from the United States Military Academy Class of 1937 and concluded on July 31, 1961. Following retirement, he was an orange grower in Mexico for nearly 30 years before moving to Olympia, Wash., in 1993. There, he died peacefully on October 14, 2006.

The Younger Years, 1912-37

Nine years after the Wrights made their first flight, Charles W. Stark Jr., was born in Asbury Park, New Jersey. His parents were Elizabeth Sutton Stark and Lt. Col. Charles W. Stark, later head of the Ordnance Department of the New Jersey National Guard (NJNG) and the 44th Division.(1) At this early time in aviation, such names as Avro, Curtiss and Deperdussin were already familiar in the world that Charlie Stark would enter. Stark, nicknamed “Bumps,” saw very early something of the military life, when he and his mother visited his father at NG activities.

By Stark’s seventh birthday, his father was in Bourbonne-les-bains, France, remaining there until early 1919. In April, Lt. Colonel Stark’s homeward journey took him through Glasgow, Scotland. During a National Guard summer camp, at Sea Girt, N.J., Charlie Stark had his first airplane flight. This was probably in the years 1922-24. He sat on his father’s lap in the front cockpit of a JN-4 Jenny flown by an unknown pilot, though Stark always maintained it was Charles Lindbergh. Lindbergh did not solo until May 1923 and joined the air cadet program on March 19, . . .



Stark at Selfridge


Against All Odds: The Kwan Gi-Ok Story

While serving 26 active years in the military and another 21 years in aerospace, I met many outstanding individuals, but none more so than a Korean lady named Miss Kwan Gi-Ok.

It was October 10, 1971, and Taiwan was celebrating the 60th anniversary of a very important Chinese holiday called,“Double Ten.” The name is due to the fact that it is always held on the tenth day of the tenth month (October) of the year. Actually it’s in celebration of the overthrow of the Manchu rule of the Ching Dynasty that ruled China for 268 years (1644 to 1911). The Nationalist claim the overthrow was inspired by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and is sometimes referred to as the Wuchang Uprising.

At the time, I was serving a United States Air attaché tour on the island and was invited to several official functions associated with the celebration. It was during one of these functions that I had the good fortune to meet Miss Kwan Gi-Ok.

She was there as the honored guest of the Chinese Air Force (CAF), due to her many unforgettable accomplishments while serving as its first female pilot. Gen. Lai Ming-tang, a CAF four-star general, who at the time was Chief of General Staff, Ministry of National Defense (MND), Republic of China (ROC), on behalf of the Air Force, personally invited Miss Kwan Gi-Ok.

My initial discussion with Miss Kwan led to several interviews resulting in the following fascinating account of her life. She also gave me photos of two of the aircraft she flew during her flight training in China. Although the quality of these pictures is not good, I think you will find them interesting.

In 1923, when Miss Kwan was a student pilot, airplanes were very primitive and man still had much to learn about this new mode of transportation. Anyone who chose to become a pilot was thought to be nothing more than a daredevil. The sky was still the domain for only the strong and bold who appeared to be fearless by their earth bound brothers. It was during this challenging period that Miss Kwan Gi-Ok graduated from a Chinese military flight program and became China’s first female military pilot.

Ms. Kwan’s interesting story of courage and determination begins with her birth in Pyong-Yang, Korea, during the year 1901. Records in Korea state that Ms. Kwan was born in 1903, but on two occasions, in 1971, she told me that she was born in 1901. Her childhood was fairly uneventful until the Japanese annexed Korea in 1910. Although Ms. Kwan was only nine years old at the time, this historical event obviously influenced the course of her life significantly. For example, in 1919, when this patriotic lady was only 18 years old, she joined an anti-Japanese resistance group called“The Korea Political Freedom Movement.” Due to her activities associated with this organization, she was arrested by the Japanese and put in jail for approximately three weeks. Upon her release from jail, she was warned by her captors not to become involved in any future political activities.

Ignoring the warnings, Ms. Kwan soon contacted, and began working with “The South Korean Temporary Government Intelligence Organization.” Again, she was captured and this time spent six months in a Japanese prison before being released.

Obviously, the Japanese underestimated this young woman’s courage, dedication and love for freedom, because it was not long before she once again was taking part in anti-Japanese activities.

Soon after her release in 1920, and at great personal risk, she helped to establish what was known as“The Young Ladies War Organization.” To mislead the Japanese, this group operated as a missionary organization.

When the Japanese became aware of her renewed underground exploits, they issued another warrant for her arrest. Ms. Kwan’s life was now in grave jeopardy, leaving her no alternative but to flee Korea, preferably to a country where she could continue to support the Korean resistance movement.

Initially, her attempts to leave Korea were unsuccessful, but after several weeks a close friend was able to arrange Ms. Kwan’s escape by slipping her . . .



Ms Kwan Gi-Ok


Forum of Flight

     The FORUM is presented as an opportunity for each member to participate in the Journal by submitting interesting or unusual photographs. Negatives, blackand-white or color photos with good contrast may be used if they have smooth surfaces. Send submissions to the Editorial Committee marked “Forum of Flight,” P.O. Box 3023, Huntington Beach, CA 92605-3023. Mark any material to be returned: “Return to (your name and complete address).”

Please include as much information as possible about the photo such as: date, place, names, etc., plus proper credit (it may be part of your collection but taken by another photographer)



Atlas H-10


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